Camera Proxy

There’s a lot of paranoia in the industry right now, some warranted, some not. The primary issue is that when you plug something into your network you basically have to trust the vendor to not spy on you “by design” and to not provide a trivial attack vector to 3rd parties.

First things first. Perhaps you remember that CCTV means Closed Circuit Television. Pay attention to those first two words. I am pretty sure 50% or more of all “CCTV” installations are not closed at all. If your CCTV system is truly closed, there’s no way for the camera to “call home”, and it is impossible for hackers to exploit any attack vectors because there’s no access from the outside world to the camera. There are plenty of PC’s running terrible and vulnerable software out there, but as long as these systems are closed, there’s no problem. Granted, it also limits the flexibility of the system. But that’s the price you pay for security.

In the opposite end of the spectrum are cameras that are directly exposed to the internet. This is a very bad idea, and most professionals probably don’t do that. Well… some clearly do, because a quick scan of the usual sites reveal plenty of seemingly professional installations where cameras are directly accessible from the internet.

To expose a camera directly to the internet you usually have to alter the NAT tables in your router/firewall. This can be a pain in the ass for most people, so another approach is used called hole-punching. This requires a STUN server between the client sitting outside the LAN (perhaps on an LTE connection via AT&T) and the camera inside the LAN. The camera will register with the STUN server via an outbound connection. Almost all routers/firewalls allow outbound connections. The way STUN servers work, probably confuse some people, and they freak out when they see the camera making a connection to “suspicious” IP but that’s simply how things work, and not a cause for alarm.

Now, say you want to record the cameras in your LAN on a machine outside your LAN, perhaps you want an Azure VM to record the video, but how will the recorder on Azure (outside your LAN) get access to your cameras that are inside the LAN unless you set up NAT and thus expose your cameras directly to the internet?

This is where the $10 camera proxy comes in (the actual cost is higher because you’ll need an SD card and a PSU as well).

So, here’s a rough sketch of how you can do things.

  • On Azure you install your favorite VMS
  • Install Wowza or EvoStream as well

EvoStream can receive an incoming RTMP stream, and make the stream available via RTSP, it basically changes the protocol, but uses the same video packets (no transcoding). So, if you were to publish a stream at say rtmp://evostreamserver/live/mycamera, that stream will be available at rtsp://evostreamserver/mycamera. You can then add a generic RTSP camera that reads from rtsp://evostreamserver/mycamera to your VMS.

The next step is to install the proxy, you can use a very cheap Pi clone, or a regular PC.

  • Determine the RTSP address of the camera in question
  • Download FFMpeg
  • Set up FFMpeg so that it publishes the camera to EvoStream (or Wowza) on Azure

Say you have a camera that streams via rtsp://192.168.0.100/video/channels/1, the command looks something like this (all on one line)

ffmpeg -i rtsp://username:password@192.168.0.100/video/channels/1 
-vcodec copy -f flv rtmp://evostreamserver/live/mycamera

This will make your PC grab the AV from the camera and publish it to the evostream server on Azure, but the camera is not directly exposed to the internet. The PC acts as a gateway, and it only creates an outbound connection to another PC that you control as well.

You can now access the video from the VMS on Azure, and your cameras are not exposed at all, so regardless how vulnerable they are, they will not expose any attack vectors to the outside world.

Using Azure is just an example, the point is that you want to isolate the cameras from the outside world, and this can be trivially accomplished by using a proxy.

As a side note. If cameras were deliberately spying on their users, by design, this would quickly be discovered and published. That there are bugs and vulnerabilities in firmware is just a fact of life and not proof of anything nefarious, so calm down, but take the necessary precautions.

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